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Neurophysiological Lab.

The space was equipped with the machine of Neurofeedback (NFB) and Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Neurofeedback (NFB), also called neurotherapy, neurobiofeedback or EEG biofeedback (EEGBF) is a therapy technique that presents the user with realtime EEG feedback on brainwave activity, as measured by sensors on the scalp, typically in the form of a video display, sound or vibration. NFB is to provide real-time information to the Central Nervous System (CNS) as to its current activity. The neurofeedback is used in the treatment of children with developmental disabilities or delay, such as ADHD, cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders, learning disabilities, and conduct Disorder.The NFB mechanism may be that conscious understanding and mediation of that information is important for the training process through EEG feedback. A positive "reward" feedback is given to the individual if brain activity changes in the direction desired by the trainer directing the training; or different feedback is given or positive" feedback is inhibited if the change is in the opposite direction from what was intended. These ideas can be applied in various combinations depending on the protocol decided upon by the trainer. Rewards/Reinforcements can be as a change in pitch of a tone or as a certain type of a video game.
The Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive method to excite neurons in the brain: weak electric currents are induced in the tissue by rapidly changing magnetic fields (electromagnetic induction). This way, brain activity can be triggered with minimal discomfort, and the functionality of the circuitry and connectivity of the brain can be studied. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can produce longer lasting changes. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, or rTMS, is a procedure in which electrical activity in the brain is influenced by a pulsed magnetic field. The magnetic field is generated by passing brief current pulses through a coil of wire. This coil of wire is encased in plastic and held close to the scalp so that the magnetic field can be focused onto specific areas of the cortex, or surface, of the brain. The magnetic field that is generated in rTMS can penetrate the scalp and skull safely and painlessly to induce a current in specific neurons (brain cells). Because the magnetic stimulation is delivered at regular intervals, it is termed repetitive TMS, or rTMS. The uses of TMS and rTMS included diagnostic and therapeutic uses. rTMS is used in treatment of psychiatric disorders, such as major depression, and auditory hallucinations, neurological disorders neurological conditions, such as migraine, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and dystonia, and children with developmental disabilities or delay, such as autism, and cerebral palsy.